Tag Archives: Dr. Engr. A. K. M. Fazlul Hoque

Elemental Analysis of Local Vegetables by Proton Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) Technique

Dr. Engr. A. K. M. Fazlul Hoque
Professor
Natural Sciences
Daffodil Internation University

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Proton induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) method has been used to analyze the light elements in some locally produced vegetables such as red leaves, papaya, ask pumpkin leaves, arum greens, bringal, lady’s finger, basil, luffa gourd, bitter gourd, snake gourd, green banana, etc. The samples were collected from the fields and kitchen gardens at Dhakshin Khan area of Uttara model town, Dhaka. The elements that were found to be present in these samples in measurable quantities are B, Na, Mg, Si, P, Cl, K and Sc and none of the samples contained any F. The level of concentrations and sensitivities of the elements present were measured from the PIGE reaction yields. Some samples contained Na and Mg in toxic quantities, and some were found to be deficient in Si and P, only Sc level was found to be optimum. The results of the experiments are discussed in the light of the concentrations in which the elements are present in the locally produced vegetables and the possible hazard they may pose to the health of the general population of the country.

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Elemental Analysis of Local Chewing Sticks in Bangladesh

Dr. Engr. A. K. M. Fazlul Hoque
Professor
Natural Sciences
Daffodil Internation University

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Proton Induced Gamma Emission Technique (PIGE) was employed for the determination of trace elemental concentrations in some local chewing stick plants of pharmacological importance. The familiar local name of chewing stick plants studied are Nishinda, Neem, Bely-asra, Bhat, Joytun, Kaminee, Akondo, Khejur, Bohera, Moth-bhringraj, Batul, Olut-kumbal, Sheora and Motkila. Proton beam from the 3 MeV Van de Graaff Accelerator at the AECD was used for irradiating the samples. Proton beam energy was 2.5 MeV and the beam current was 20 nA. As F has important dental carries inhibiting properties, the measurement of its concentration in the common chewing plants is of special interest. The PIGE reaction 19F (p,p’ y) 19F was used for the determination of the concentrations. The certified values of concentrations in NBS SRM 1515 Apple leaves, NBS SRM 1573, Tomato leaves, NBS SRM 1573, Spinach and sediment standard AGV -1 were used as standard for the measurement of concentrations of 23Na, 24Mg, and 25Mg. The natural abundances of Mg are: 24Mg-78.99%, 25Mg-l 0%, and 26Mg-II.O 1%. Using the natural isotopic abundance, the concentrations of Mg isotopes have been calculated. The concentration of 19F was calculated using the calibration curve of cellulose for 197 KeY energy peak. Both leaves and trunks of the chewing stick plants were analyzed. It has been observed that among all the leaf samples investigated, leaves of Neem, a common chewing stick plant, contain the highest amount ofF, which is about 222 ppm. And among all the trunk samples, the highest amount ofF has been observed in Bely-asra plant, which is about 122 ppm. Finally, the significance of the measured results are discussed in the light of their impact on the health care.



DETERMINATION OF FLUORIDE IN WATER RESIDUES BY PROTON INDUCED GAMMA EMISSION MEASUREMENTS

Dr. Engr. A. K. M. Fazlul Hoque
Professor
Natural Sciences
Daffodil Internation University

https://www.apprhs.org/heartbeat/ed/viagra-online-london.html SUMMARY

A multielement proton induced gamma emission (PIGE) method has been developed to analyze fluoride in water residues obtained by evaporation. In this method, 200 mL of water sample mixed with 100 mg of cellulose powder is evaporated, and the residue is made into standard pellets that are then irradiated with a 2.9 MeV proton beam. The emitted y-rays from the decay
of the excited fluorine nuclei are detected with a high resolution, high purity germanium (HPGe) detector and analyzed using a commercial gamma ray spectrum unfolding software. For concentration calibration, synthetic fluoride standards of different concentrations, as NaF in a CaC03 matrix, were prepared and homogenized by dispersing them in methanol. The method thus developed was applied to determine the concentration of fluoride in 85 water samples collected from different city supplies of Bangladesh. The concentration ranged from 0.03 to 1.10 mg/L with the mean of 0.32 ± 0.21 mg/L.

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Characteristics of PIGE Setup with the Dhaka Van de Graaff and its use for Light Element Analysis in Environmental Related Samples

Author
Dr. Engr. A. K. M. Fazlul Hoque
Professor
Natural Sciences
Daffodil Internation University

here Abstract

The need for elemental analysis especially related to environment has increased in recent years to a great extent. The analytical need has created a worldwide spurt to develop rapid, sensitive and accurate methods for the determination of trace as well as major elements in various environmental related samples. Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXEl has been extensively applied for Air pollution related analysis and multi-element analysis of Environmental, Medical, Biological, Agricultural samples, etc. However this method has limitations in detecting elements with Z<ll using internal beam technique. The limits of detection of elements such as Na, AI and Si are rather poor because of the self-absorption corrections, which strongly depends on the sample matrix, experimental chamber window thickness and also detector window thickness. External beam method that is used extensively for environmental samples is practically limited to elements with Z> 18 due to presence of Argon in air. Moreover, very light elements are not detectable at all in practice.

The Proton Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) technique, based on the detection of gammarays following (p, y), (p, p’ y) and (p, a ) reactions leading to the emission of gamma-rays, offer a great potential for elemental analysis, especially for the light elements. To complement PIXE for the analysis of light elements, development of PIGE methodology has been in progress in the Van de Graafflaboratory for some years. Sensitivity ofPIGE systems are installation dependent due to background signals which are different for different setups. Over the years the sensitivity of the developed methodology (PIGE) has improved considerably and has now reached a level that can be used for practical applications. In this report the current status of the PIGE setup   capabilities have been discussed. Comparative assessments of the present and previous  capabilities of the system have been made to illustrate the progress achieved. At present the Dhaka Van de Graaff laboratory has the capability for the analysis of light elements like F, Na, B, Mg, Si, etc. using the PIGE methodology.



Application of Proton Induced Nuclear Reaction to the Analysis of Fluorine in Water Samples

Author
Dr. Engr. A. K. M. Fazlul Hoque
Professor
Natural Sciences
Daffodil Internation University

https://www.apprhs.org/heartbeat/ed/flomax-levitra.html Abstract

Proton induced gamma emission (PIG E) analytical technique was used to measure the concentration ofF in groundwater samples collected from different areas of Kalia thana under Narail district. Proton beam of energy 2.5 MeV obtained from the 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator at the AECD (Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka) was used for sample irradiation. 200 ml of water sample mixed with 1.0 gm of cellulose powder is evaporated, and the residue is made into standard pellets that are used as target for the proton beam. The characteristic gamma emitted from the exited nuclei of the irradiated samples was detected by a HPGe spectrometer system. Concentrations were obtained by comparing the PIGE gamma yields with that of the standards prepared in the same laboratory. The concentration ranged from 0.71-4.26 mg/L with the mean of 1.73 mg/L. The highest concentration ofF is found at East Durgapur which is 4.26 mg/L and much above the WHO recommended maximum of 1.5 mg/L. The results of the experiments were discussed in the light of elemental deficiencies or the toxicities in the groundwater and the likely impact they may have on the health of the population at that area.

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A Database Library Management System for the Atomic Energy Centre Library

Author
Dr. Engr. A. K. M. Fazlul Hoque
Professor
Natural Sciences
Daffodil Internation University

https://www.apprhs.org/heartbeat/ed/viagra-makes-my-face-red.html Abstract

This is a Library Management Program for the management of the books, journals and other periodicals of the library of the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (AECD). One can add books and/or journals, edit (i.e. change) the information of the books/journals, and have different reports of the books and journals. This is a user friendly database management program suitable for the management of any library similar to the one of AECD. The program may be utilized by the other establishments of the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission for the management of their libraries. A readers and/or borrower’s register can also be maintained using this program. Reports on the individual borrower of the books can also be made as well as the complete report of the borrowers.

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Fluoride in water and its Health Consequences

Author
Dr. Engr. A. K. M. Fazlul Hoque
Professor
Natural Sciences
Daffodil Internation University

follow url Introduction
Fluorine

  • first identified by Scheele in 1771AD
  • first isolated by Moissan in 1886AD
  • univalent poisonous gaseous halogen, pale yellow-green
  • most chemically reactive and electronegative of all the elements
  • reacts with nearlyall organic and inorganic materials, even withgold and platinum.
  • Hydrogen and fluorine react with explosive violence.
  •  With water, form hydrofluoric acid and ozone. A jet of fluorine from apressure container reacts
  • with human flesh and can cause extremely severe burns thatare very difficult to heal
  • forms compound with most other elements (even with noble gases krypton, xenon and radon)
  • so reactive that glass, metals, and even water, as well as other substances, burn with a bright flame in a jet of fluorine gas. Too reactive to stay free.
  • in water occurs as fluoride ion F-
  • attracted by positively charged ions Ca, Mg, Al,…
  • F-18, a PET isotope used for diagnostic andtherapeutic purposes

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Trace metal analysis in soil samples of Hazaribagh tannery area by PIXE

Author
Dr. Engr. A. K. M. Fazlul Hoque
Professor
Natural Sciences
Daffodil Internation University

cialis user groups Introduction

The unplanned urbanization and industrialization of Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh has severely affected the environmental components, such as air, soil and water of the city and its adjacent areas. A large number of industries were set up in and around the Dhaka city. Hazaribagh is one of the densely populated residential areas where a large number of industries, especially tanneries were established. Around 185 tanneries have been operating their activities on 25 hector areas, processing 220 metric tons of hide a day and some 40 to 50 liters of liquid for each kilogram of hide which is poured down in natural canal or into the ground directly. 50 years old tannery complex are discharging their solid wastes and effluent containing putrid flesh, fat, blood and skin, toxic chemicals, salt, dissolved lime, chromium sulfate, alkali, hydrogen sulfide, sulfuric acid, dyes, oil, formic acid, various heavy metals, specially chromium, suspended solids, organic matters directly to the natural canals, in low lying areas, along road sides and water bodies between the dike and residential area without proper treatment [1] (A. Zahid and et. al, 2003). A significant portion of the tanning process requires huge amount of chromium where remarkable quantity of this chromium is discharged along with the effluent. The objective of the present work is to investigate the leaching of heavy metal pollutant such as Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb), Zink (Zn), Manganese (Mn), Iron (Fe), Aluminum (Al) and Arsenic (As), etc. in the surrounding soil from these tanneries industries.

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Accelerator Science and Technology

Author
Dr. Engr. A. K. M. Fazlul Hoque
Professor
Natural Sciences
Daffodil Internation University

plaintiffs lawsuit on viagra update 2008 Introduction

Original development of Accelerators in 1930s for research in nuclear physics and have become a major tool for research in many areas of science and technology.

Developed as a unique tools for exploration of subatomic world and extensively used for

  • material analysis and modification
  • environmental monitoring/studies
  • diagnostic and therapeutic purposes

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ANALYTICAL APPLICATION OF CHARGED PARTICLE INDUCED NUCLEAR REACTIONS FOR LOW MASS ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS

Author
Dr. Engr. A. K. M. Fazlul Hoque
Professor
Natural Sciences
Daffodil Internation University

ABSTRACT

Proton Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE), a nuclear reaction based analytical technique, has been developed at the 3 MeV Van de Graaff Accelerator Laboratory of Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (AECD) for analyzing the low Z elements in the range of 3 ~ Z ~15. With a view toexploit the potential of PIGE technique as a tool for practical applications, attempts have been made to fmd the experimental evidences for its suitability and scope. Gamma ray yields from PIGE experiments for some low Z elements have been measured and analyzed in order to assess its capability and to identify its limits. The thick target PIGE yields of the light elements such as lithium, beryllium, boron, oxygen, fluorine, sodium, magnesium and silicon that are essential for the development of the methodology have been measured at the proton energy of 2.9 MeV.
The thick target excitation function for the elements of interest namely lithium, boron, fluorine and sodium have been measured in the proton energy range of 2.3-3.0 MeV and that facilitated the identification of these elements.

The low energy proton-induced reactions m the light elements are energetically possible for PIGE studies but in heavy elements, the Coulomb barrier inhibits the reaction rate. _ The penetrability or transmission coefficients have been calculated to estimate the dependence of the y-ray yields on the mass of the target element. The sensitivity of the low Z elements such as lithium, beryllium, boron, oxygen, fluorine, sodium, magnesium, silicon and phosphorus have been measured at 2.9
MeV proton energy, with both the internal and the external beam techniques. The sensitivity for the elements, lithium, boron, fluorine and sodium is found to be the highest at this proton energy and these can be measured at the mglkg level. The sensitivity functions for lithium, boron, fluorine and sodium have also been measured in the proton energy range of2.3-3.0 MeV, that helped to select the excitation energy for the present experimental setup. The PIGE method has been utilized for isotopic speciation of the different isotopes of magnesium present in the locally available vegetables to assess its suitability for the isotopic analysis of different elements present in the samples of interest.

To ensure the analytical quality of data, a stringent protocol following the American Chemical Society guidelines has been adopted and also a Quality Assurance (QA) assessment has been included in the study. In order to validate the method, IAEA standard soil-7 and US rock standard sample AGV -1 have been analyzed and compared. The results of this intercomparison of analysis of fluorine are found to agree within ±5%.

Fluorine concentration in 6 water samples has been measured using the Ion Selective Analysis (ISA) method which is considered to be the best electrochemical method and the results are compared with those of PIGE analysis. The agreement between the results of the two methods is found to lie within ± 11 %. The correspondence between the results of the two methods indicates the accuracy of the measurements of fluorine in water sample using PIGE. In the process of the development of PIGE, the characteristics of the High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector in terms of its energy calibration, energy resolution and efficiency have also been 11 studied. The quoted energy efficiency of the 59 cm3 HPGe detector was 12.3% at 1332 keV.
Analytical techniques have been developed for the quantitative analysis of materials of different origin. A mathematical formalism has been developed and implemented to obtain the matrix correction factors necessary to derive pure element yields that resulted from the individual elements present in the compound/mixture targets, taking the proton energy degradation into accmmt. The effect of the variability of the matrix on the gamma ray yields has been theoretically studied and then compared with the experimental results. Attempt has also been made to fmd a universal standard for concentration calibration for use in the quantitative analysis of the data obtained using PIGE technique.

Analytical methods based on the PIGE technique have been applied for the study of the concentration of fluorine in water. In total 223 water samples collected from different sources, both rural and urban areas of Bangladesh have been analyzed. Of these analyte samples, 102 were from the shallow tube wells, 15 were from the deep tube wells and 82 were from the city water supplies; 13 samples collected from the ponds, lakes and fountains and 11 rain water samples have also been analyzed for fluorine concentration.

The fluorine concentration in these samples was found to be in the range of 0.03 – 2.32 mg!L and the mean is 0.45 ± 0.43 mg!L. It has been found that the fluorine concentration in the deep tube well (>50 m) water is the 111 highest among the water samples analyzed from different sources and the mean of which is 0.90 ± 0.62 mg/L. The surface water contains the lowest amount of fluorine and the mean for the 13 surface water samples mentioned earlier is 0.14 ± 0.12 mg/L. The mean fluorine content in the rain water is 0.26±0.14 mg/L which is higher than that of the surface water. These samples were collected during the period of September-October, 1999.

The study reveals that the fluorine concentration in the water of city supplies of Bangladesh is much lower than the maximum permissible limit. The maximum permissible limit of fluorine in drinking water in Bangladesh is set at 1 mg/L. The recommended lower level of fluorine in drinking water is 0.5 mg/L, the fluorine content lower than which is considered harmful for health. The concentration of fluorine in the water of city supplies ranges from 0.03 – 1.10 mg!L with a mean of 0.32 ± 0.21 mg/L. It is observed that the majority of the water samples studied
contained fluorine less than 0.5 mg!L, indicating a deficiency of fluorine in the city water supply.
The mean of fluorine concentration in the shallow tube well water is 0.55 ± 0.49 mg/L, within the range of 0.04 – 2.32 mg/L. This indicates that the fluorine concentration in the groundwater of Bangladesh is, in general, low. However, the fluorine concentration is found to be higher in the tube well water of the south-western region of Bangladesh. The mean value of the fluorine concentration in tube well water in this region is 1.10 ± 0.52 mg/L within the range of0.37- 2.32 mg/L.

PIGE, developed in this study has also been applied for the analysis of fluorine in the dental enamel of Bangladeshi population to determine both prophylactic and toxicological effects of fluorine on human health. For adult teeth sampling, the age group of 15 years and above has been selected and 150 adult teeth have been analyzed for the fluorine contents in their enamel. 263 milk teeth (incisor) were collected for the measurement of fluorine in the dental enamel. The mean fluorine concentration in the adult dental enamel is found to be 2007±1505 mglkg within the range of 233 to 9528 mglkg. The concentration of fluorine in the milk teeth enamel ranges from 111 to 6423 mglkg and the mean is 1527±1028 mglkg. The results indicate that the fluorine concentration in the teeth of 40% of adult population and 24% of the children lies well above the normal level of 500 – 1000 mglkg. It is also observed that the milk teeth enamel contain higher amount of fluorine compared to that of the adult population.

Attempt has also been made to apply PIGE for the measurement of boron in soil. The boron content in the soil samples analyzed lies in the range of 19.9 – 153 mglkg with a mean of 52.7±32.1 mglkg. The boron concentrations in 5 soil samples, measured using PI GE, were also analyzed using Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) method for comparison. The good correspondence observed between the results obtained by NRA and PIGE (±16%) for boron in soil samples, suggests that the PIGE technique is a reliable method for the analysis of boron in soil matrix.

PIGE technique has also been used for the measurements of fluorine, sodium, magnesium and phosphorus in the locally available vegetables. The results suggest that PIGE can be effectively used for the low Z element analysis present in trace quantities in different biological samples such as vegetables, fruits, crops, etc.
The present study demonstrates the characteristics of the nuclear reaction based PIGE methodology for analytical applications. The results of the present study show the strength and capabilities of the PI GE for the low Z elemental analysis, especially when present in trace quantities in the samples of different origin. The data presented on the concentration of fluorine in drinking water may be used to evaluate the quality of the drinking water in terms of the fluorine content. It can also be used to satisfy the requirements of the baseline data as well as to detect any fluorine hazard that might be occurring in any region of rural Bangladesh. The data presented on the concentration of fluorine in dental enamel may be used to detect any possible fluorine toxicity in the different age groups of the Bangladeshi population.

For details please see the attached file