Tag Archives: Mohammed Rahmatullah

Ethnomedicinal survey on Kanda tribe

Author
Mohammed Rahmatullah
Umma Ayman
Fatema Akter

Abstract

The Kanda tribe is one of the lesser known small tribes of Bangladesh with an estimated population of about 1700 people (according to them), and on the verge of extinction as a separate entity. To some extent, they have assimilated with the surrounding mainstream Bengali-speaking population, but they still maintain their cultural practices including traditional medicinal practices, for which they have their own tribal healers. Nothing at all has been documented thus far about their traditional medicinal practices and formulations, which are on the verge of disappearance. The Kanda tribe can be found only in scattered tea gardens of Sreemangal in Sylhet district of Bangladesh; dispersion of the tribe into small separated communities is also contributing to the fast losing of traditional medicinal practices. The objective of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the traditional healers of the Kanda tribe (in fact, only one such healer was found after extensive searches). Information was collected from the healer with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. A total of 24 formulations were obtained from the healer containing 34 plants including two plants, which could not be identified. Besides medicinal plants, the Kanda healer also used the body hairs of the Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) and bats (Pteropus giganteus giganteus) in one of his formulation for treatment of fever with shivering. The ailments treated by the Kanda healer were fairly common ailments like cuts and wounds, skin diseases, helminthiasis, fever, respiratory problems (coughs, asthma), gastrointestinal disorders (stomach pain, constipation, diarrhea), burning sensations during urination, various types of pain (headache, body ache, toothache, ear ache), conjunctivitis, poisonous snake, insect or reptile bites, jaundice, and bone fractures. A number of important drugs in allopathic medicine like quinine, artemisinin, and morphine (to name only a few) have been discovered from observing indigenous medicinal practices. From that view point, the formulations used by the Kanda healer merit scientific studies for their potential in the discovery of cheap and effective new drugs. Scientific validation of the medicinal formulations of the Kanda healer can also be effective for treatment of ailments among this tribe, which does not have or does not want to have any contact with modern medicine.

For details please see the following link:

http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3746568/

Plants for treatment of pain

Author
Syeda Seraj
Farhana Israt Jahan
Anita Rani Chowdhury

Abstract

The Bedes form one of the largest tribal or indigenous communities in Bangladesh and are popularly known as the boat people or water gypsies because of their preference for living in boats. They travel almost throughout the whole year by boats on the numerous waterways of Bangladesh and earn their livelihood by selling sundry items, performing jugglery acts, catching snakes, and treating village people by the various riversides with their traditional medicinal formulations. Life is hard for the community, and both men and women toil day long. As a result of their strenuous lifestyle, they suffer from various types of pain, and have developed an assortment of formulations for treatment of pain in different parts of the body. Pain is the most common reason for physician consultation in all parts of the world including Bangladesh. Although a number of drugs are available to treat pain, including non-steroidal, steroidal, and narcotic drugs, such drugs usually have side-effects like causing bleeding in the stomach over prolonged use (as in the case of rheumatic pain), or can be addictive. Moreover, pain arising from causes like rheumatism has no proper treatment in allopathic medicine. It was the objective of the present study to document the formulations used by the Bede traditional practitioners for pain treatment, for they claim to have used these formulations over centuries with success. Surveys were conducted among a large Bede community, who reside in boats on the Bangshi River by Porabari village of Savar area in Dhaka district of Bangladesh. Interviews of 30 traditional practitioners were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. It was observed that the Bede practitioners used 53 formulations for treatment of various types of pain, the main ingredient of all formulations being medicinal plants. Out of the 53 formulations, 25 were for treatment of rheumatic pain, either exclusively, or along with other types of body pain. A total of 65 plants belonging to 39 families were used in the formulations. The Fabaceae family provided 7 plants followed by the Solanaceae family with 4 plants. 47 out of the 53 formulations were used topically, 5 formulations were orally administered, and 1 formulation had both topical and oral uses. 8 formulations for treatment of rheumatic pain contained Calotropis gigantea, suggesting that the plant has strong potential for further scientific studies leading to discovery of novel efficacious compounds for rheumatic pain treatment.

For details please see the attached file:

19. Plants for treatment of pain

Ethnomedicinal survey on Soren & santal tribe

Author
Mohammed Rahmatullah
Abid Hasan
Waheda Parvin

Abstract

The Santals form the largest tribal community in northern Bangladesh reside primarily in Rajshahi and Rangpur Divisions, where they live in the districts of Rajshahi, Rangpur, Thakurgaon, Dinajpur, and Panchagarh. Although they are fast losing their traditional medicinal practices, they still have their own medicinal practitioners who rely mostly on medicinal plants for treatment of a variety of ailments. The traditional medicinal practices vary quite extensively between the twelve clans of the Santals. The objective of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey amongst the Soren clan of the Santal community residing in two villages of Tanor Santal Para in Rajshahi district to collect information on their use of medicinal plants. Interviews were conducted of the two existing Santal traditional medicinal practitioners of the Soren clan with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and using the guided field-walk method. Plant specimens as pointed out by the practitioners were collected and pressed on the field and identification completed at the Bangladesh National Herbarium. Information on 53 medicinal plants distributed into 32 families was obtained in this survey. Ailments treated by these plants included skin disorders, respiratory tract disorders, gastro-intestinal disorders, sexual dysfunctions, sexually transmitted diseases, diabetes, helminthiasis, pain, urinary problems, filariasis, leprosy, tuberculosis, epilepsy, snake bite, enlarged heart, and paralysis. The medicinal plants used by the Santals merit further scientific studies for some of their formulations are used to treat diseases like diabetes, paralysis, enlarged heart, tuberculosis, and filariasis for which modern medicine has no known cure or medicines have developed resistant vectors.

For details please see the attached file:

Medicinal plants used by the folk medicinal practitioners of Bangladesh: a randomized survey in a village of Narayanganj district

Author
Md. Sajjadul Karim
Md. Mahfuzur Rahman,
Sadia Binta Shahid
ABSTRACT
Folk medicinal practitioners play an important role in the primary health-care system of Bangladesh. They are known as Kavirajes and practice in villages, towns and cities of the country. The mainstay of their formulation is medicinal plants, which is either administered orally or topically in the form of decoctions, pastes, pills, juice or direct administration of whole plant or plant parts. The objective of the present study was to conduct a survey in a randomly chosen village, which lies between the two urban areas of Dhaka and Narayanganj in Narayanganj district of Bangladesh. Kasipur, the village where the survey was carried out had one Kaviraj who administered to the population’s need in various diseases. It was observed that the Kaviraj used 64 medicinal plants in his formulations. The plants were distributed into 41 families. The Asteraceae family contributed to the highest number of plants (6) followed by the Fabaceae family with 5 plants. The Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae, Rutaceae, Solanaceae and Zingiberaceae families contributed 3 plants per family. Leaves constituted the major plant part used, forming 47.1% of total uses. Leaves were followed by roots at 16.3% and fruits at 13.5%. Gastrointestinal disorders and skin diseases were the main ailments treated. Other than diabetes, the Kaviraj did not treat any complicated diseases. This was probably because since the village surveyed was between two urban areas, the village population had quite easy access to allopathic doctors and modern clinics in the urban areas. Despite the easy access to modern doctors, the village people relied on the Kaviraj for treatment of common ailments, suggesting that folk medicinal practitioners can still play a considerable role in the day to day care of health and treatment of common diseases, thus saving a patient from incurring substantial costs related to modern allopathic doctors and clinics.
For details please see the attached file:

A Survey of Medicinal Plants Used by Folk Medicinal Practitioners of Paschim Shawra and Palordi Villages of Gaurnadi Upazila in Barisal District, Bangladesh

Author
Anup Biswas
Life Sciences
University of Development Alternative
Wahid Mozammel Haq
Mira Akber
ABSTRACT
Folk medicinal practitioners (Kavirajes) are possibly the most ancient practitioners of traditional medicine in Bangladesh and in general are the primary health-care providers to a majority of the rural population and a substantial segment of the urban population in the country. The Kavirajes rely almost exclusively on medicinal plants for treatment of various ailments. The medicinal plants chosen by the Kavirajes vary considerably even between adjacent villages. To get a comprehensive view of folk medicinal practices, it is therefore important to survey as many Kavirajes of different villages as possible. The objective of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the Kavirajes of Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages, Gaurnadi Upazila, Barisal district, which lies in the southern section of the country. Informed consent was obtained of the Kavirajes and interviews conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. All plant specimens as pointed out by the Kavirajes were collected and brought back for identification at the Bangladesh National Herbarium. It was observed that the Kavirajes of Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages used 51 plants distributed into 33 families for treatment of various ailments. The Fabaceae family contribued the higest number of species (6 plants) followed by the Lamiaceae (4 plants), Lythraceae and Zingiberaceae families (3 plants per family). Leaves constituted the major plant part used (43%), followed by whole plant(12%), rhizome (6%), bark (4%).The largest number of remedies
was used to treat gastrointestinal disorders (23 plants), suggesting that this is the most prevalent disorder in the area. Respiratory tract disorder (11 plants) like coughs, chest pain, bronchitis, asthma and whooping cough and sexual disorders (11 plants) including leucorrhea, sexual weakness, menstrual problem, gonorrhea and loss of libido formed the second most common disorders treated by the Kavirajes. 10 plants were used for the treatment of skin diseases like tinia infection, scabies, and eczema. The Kavirajes also used medicinal plants for treatment of ailments including diabetes, urogenital disorder, hepatic disorder, neurological disorder, pain and inflammation, fever, weakness, infectious, cancer, blood purifier, blood clotting agent, anemia, snake bite, insect bite ,aging, appetizer, blood pressure, malaria, heart disease and others. A perusal of the scientific literature showed that uses of several plants by the Kavirajes are validated by scientific studies on the pharmacological activities of the relevant plant species. Overall, the plants present considerable potential for further scientific studies leading to discovery of novel drugs.
For details please see the attached file:

A Comparative Analysis of Medicinal Plants used by Several Tribes of Chittagong Hill Tracts Region, Bangladesh to Treat Helminthic Infections

Author
Mohammed Rahmatullah
Life Sciences
University of Development Alternative
Rownak Jahan
Md. Shahadat Hossan
ABSTRACT
Chittagong Hill Tracts region is largely a forested region in the south-eastern part of Bangladesh. A number of tribes are settled in this region. Helminthiasis (infestation of intestine with parasitic worms) is fairly prevalent within the tribes because of poor sanitary conditions. The tribal people visit their own traditional medicinal practitioners to treat helminthic infections, more so because modern medicinal facilities are absent within the forested areas. Tribal traditional medicinal practitioners rely on medicinal plants for treatment of helminthiasis. The objective of the present survey was to conduct a survey among the Chak, Chakma, Marma, Murong, Rakhain and Tonchonga tribal traditional medicinal practitioners to learn more about medicinal plants used by them for treatment of helminthic infections. Helminthic infections are prevalent worldwide and medicinal plants can be a potential source for discovery of more efficacious drugs. A total of 10 plant species distributed into 8 families were observed to be used by the surveyed tribes to treat helminthiasis. The number of medicinal plants used by the Chak, Chakma, Marma, Murong, Rakhain and Tonchonga tribes to treat helminthic infections were respectively, 1, 4, 1, 3, 3, and 3. Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. was used in common by the Chak, Chakma, Rakhain, and Tonchonga tribes. Cassia alata L. was used in common by the Chakma and Murong tribes. Erythrina variegata L. was used in common by the Chakma, Marma, and Murong tribes. The various plant parts used included leaves, roots, barks, flowers, and fruits. The percent use of these plant parts were, respectively, 52.6, 15.8, 21.1, 5.3 and 5.3%. Mostly, a single plant or plant part was used for treatment of helminthiasis, although use of combinations of plant parts was also observed in three instances. There was only one instance where a combination of plant species was used. The Chakma tribe used a combination of leaves of Ananas comosus along with roots of Areca catechu L. and bark of Erythrina variegata for treatment of helminthiasis. The medicinal plants used by the various tribes of Chittagong Hill Tracts present considerable potential for scientific studies towards discovery of more effective medicines to treat helminthiasis, which can be caused by a variety of parasitic worms and is endemic throughout the different countries of the world.
For details please see the attached file:

A survey of medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in randomly selected areas of four districts of Bangladesh

Author
Mohammed Rahmatullah
Life Sciences
University of Development Alternative
Rownak Jahan
Md. Mahbubur Rahman
ABSTRACT
Bangladesh is a small developing country with the majority of population living in over 86,000 villages spread around the country. A substantial portion of the urban population lives in slum areas. Both rural population as well as the urban slum population resides under conditions where proper sanitation conditions are lacking and the drinking water quality is usually poor. As a result various types of gastrointestinal disorders are prevalent throughout Bangladesh. A large number of the rural and urban slum people obtain treatment for various gastrointestinal disorders from folk medicinal practitioners (Kavirajes), who rely on simple preparations of medicinal plants for treatment. The objective of the present study was to conduct a survey among the Kavirajes of various randomly selected areas in four districts, namely, Rajshahi, Jessore, Tangail, and Dinajpur in Bangladesh. The districts are located, respectively, in the northern, southern, central, and northern part of the country. Informed consent was obtained from the Kavirajes prior to the survey. Interviews were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method, where the Kavirajes took the interviewers to spots from where they collected their medicinal plants, pointed out the plants, and gave their local names and uses. All plant specimens were collected and dried in the field and later brought to Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka for complete identification. Considerable variation was observed in the family and species of medicinal plants used for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders by the Kavirajes of the four districts surveyed. The Kavirajes of two surveyed villages of Rajshahi district used 9 plants distributed into 8 families; the Kavirajes of four surveyed villages of Jessore district used 5 plants distributed into 5 families; the Kavirajes of a small town surveyed in Tangail district used 7 plants distributed into 6 families; and the Kavirajes of two villages in Dinajpur district used 25 plants distributed into 18 families. The use of whole plant or plant parts also differed considerably between the Kavirajes of the four districts. The Kavirajes of Rajshahi district used the leaves, roots, fruits, and seeds, while the Kavirajes of Jessore district used only the leaves, stems, and barks of plants. The Kavirajes of Tangail district used mainly the stems followed by roots, while the Kavirajes of Dinajpur district used mostly the leaves of medicinal plants followed by fruits. The survey highlights the considerable differences in medicinal plant usage by Kavirajes of different areas of Bangladesh. At the same time, the survey points out the diversity of plant species present in the country for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, which comprises of a number of ailments prevalent worldwide and suggests that considerable potential exists for modern scientific studies to be carried out on the medicinal plant species in the quest for better drugs.
For details please see the attached file:

A Comparative Analysis of Medicinal Plants used by Three Tribes of Chittagong Hill Tracts Region, Bangladesh to Treat Leukorrhea

Author
Mohammed Rahmatullah
Life Sciences
University of Development Alternative
Rownak Jahan
Md. Shahadat Hossan
ABSTRACT
Leukorrhea is the flow of whitish, yellowish or greenish discharge from the vagina of a female, which can happen under normal conditions as well as bacterial or fungal infections. Such discharges may originate from the vagina, ovaries, fallopian tubes, or, most commonly, the cervix. In our ongoing ethnomedicinal surveys among the various tribes and regions of Bangladesh, it was observed that leukorrhea due to infections were common among the tribal women as evidenced by the number of plants used by the tribal medicinal practitioners to treat this infective condition. The objective of the present survey was to learn more about the medicinal plants used for treatment of leukorrhea by the tribal medicinal practitioners of the Chakma, Murong and Tonchonga tribes. All three tribes reside in the southeastern forested region of Bangladesh known as the Chittagong Hill Tracts. Informed consent was obtained from the tribal medicinal practitioners and interviews were conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. It was observed that the tribal medicinal practitioners of the Chakma, Murong, and Tonchonga tribes used 13 plant species distributed into 12 families for treatment of leukorrhea. Roots constituted the major plant part used (53.3%), followed by leaves (20.0%), bark (13.3%), and whole plant and stem (6.7% each). The Kavirajes did not distinguish whether the leukorrhea originated from bacterial or fungal infections of the vagina or was due to other complications of the ovary, fallopian tube or cervix. In general, any sign of especially whitish discharge from the vagina of females was treated as leukorrhea and medications prescribed accordingly. Since the tribal population in their densely forested abodes lack access to modern medicinal facilities, the medicinal plants can form a primary mode of health-care for treatment of this occasionally infective medical condition in females.
For details please see the attached file:

A Randomized Survey of Medicinal Plants used by Folk Medicinal Practitioners in Ten Districts of Bangladesh to Treat Leprosy

Author
Mohammed Rahmatullah
Life Sciences
University of Development Alternative
Rownak Jahan
A.K. Azad
ABSTRACT
Leprosy is a chronic disease caused by the microorganisms Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis. It is primarily a granulomatous disease of the peripheral nerves and mucosa of the upper respiratory tract. The pauci-bacillary form of leprosy is treated with the drugs, rifampicin and Dapsone (diamino-diphenyl sulfone), while the multi-bacillary form of the disease is treated with the drugs rifampicin, clofazimine, and Dapsone. Bangladesh is one of the five countries who contribute to 82% of the sufferers from this disease world-wide. The disease is prevalent especially among the rural and urban poor, who despite provision of modern treatment often visit folk medicinal practitioners, who utilize medicinal plants for treatment of leprosy. Since the above drugs has been reported to have a number of adverse side-effects, it was of interest to document the medicinal plants used to treat leprosy in Bangladesh for such plants can prove to be valuable sources of drugs with less side-effects. Randomized ethnomedicinal surveys were therefore carried out in ten districts of Bangladesh to learn more about medicinal plants used by folk medicinal practitioners. Informed consent was obtained from the practitioners prior to interviews, which were conducted with the help of a semistructured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. The names of 16 plants were obtained, the plants being distributed into 11 families. The Combretaceae family provided the highest number of three plants followed by the Apocynaceae and Fabaceae families with 2 plants each. The various plant parts used to treat leprosy included whole plant, leaves, barks, roots, and seeds. The plants present considerable potential for discovery of novel compounds with less side-effect for treatment of leprosy and can, at least in Bangladesh, become a source of affordable and more easily available drugs.
For details please see the attached file:

Medicinal Plants Used by Folk and Tribal Medicinal Practitioners of Bangladesh for Treatment of Gonorrhea

Author
Mohammed Rahmatullah
Life Sciences
University of Development Alternative
Rownak Jahan
Syeda Seraj
ABSTRACT
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease and is prevalent in practically every country of the world, including Bangladesh. Although ciprofloxacin is one of the recommended drugs of choice for the treatment of gonorrhea, in vitro resistance to this drug has been reported from many parts of the world. This is also applicable to Bangladesh, where strains have been found of the gonorrhea causing microorganism, Neisseria gonorrhea, which has developed resistance to a number of antibiotics. As such, development of new antibiotics is essential. The plant kingdom can be a valuable source for such new drugs. Various forms of traditional medicinal practices exist in Bangladesh of which folk medicine is the most common. Folk medicinal practitioners, otherwise known as Kavirajes, rely essentially on medicinal plants for treatment of various ailments. Gonorrhea is one such ailment, which is widely treated by the Kavirajes. The objective of this study was to document the medicinal plants used by the Kavirajes for treatment of gonorrhea. Additionally, tribal medicinal practitioners from various tribes of Bangladesh were also interviewed to document any medicinal plants that they use for treatment of this disease. A survey of both Kavirajes and tribal medicinal practitioners revealed that a total of 96 plants distributed in to 54 families were used for treatment of gonorrhea. The Fabaceae family contributed the largest number of plants with ten plants used from this family. The Euphorbiaceae family contributed six plants followed by the Lamiaceae and the Malvaceae family with five and four plants, respectively. The Amaranthaceae, Combretaceae, Liliaceae, Menispermaceae, Moraceae, and
the Solanaceae family contributed three plants each. Anti-gonorrheal activities have been reported for a number of plants in the scientific literature for the medicinal plants used in Bangladesh for treatment of gonorrhea. Taken together, the plants merit further studies for discovery of new drugs, which can be used to combat various existing antibiotic-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
For details please see the attached file: