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Codon Usage Bias Correlates With Gene Length in Neurodegeneration Associated Genes
, Mohammad Amjad Kamal,

Codon usage analysis is a crucial part of molecular characterization and is used to determine the factors affecting the evolution of a gene. The length of a gene is an important parameter that affects the characteristics of the gene, such as codon usage, compositional parameters, and sometimes, its functions. In the present study, we investigated the association of various parameters related to codon usage with the length of genes. Gene expression is affected by nucleotide disproportion. In sixty genes related to neurodegenerative disorders, the G nucleotide was the most abundant and the T nucleotide was the least. The nucleotide T exhibited a significant association with the length of the gene at both the overall compositional level and the first and second codon positions. Codon usage bias (CUB) of these genes was affected by pyrimidine and keto skews. Gene length was found to be significantly correlated with codon bias in neurodegeneration associated genes. In gene segments with lengths below 1,200 bp and above 2,400 bp, CUB was positively associated with length. Relative synonymous CUB, which is another measure of CUB, showed that codons TTA, GTT, GTC, TCA, GGT, and GGA exhibited a positive association with length, whereas codons GTA, AGC, CGT, CGA, and GGG showed a negative association. GC-ending codons were preferred over AT-ending codons. Overall analysis indicated that the association between CUB and length varies depending on the segment size; however, CUB of 1,200–2,000 bp gene segments appeared not affected by gene length. In synopsis, analysis suggests that length of the genes correlates with various imperative molecular signatures including A/T nucleotide disproportion and codon choices. In the present study we additionally evaluated various molecular features and their correlation with different indices of codon usage, like the Codon Adaptation Index (CAI) and Relative Dynonymous Codon Usage (RSCU) of codons. We also considered the impact of gene fragment size on different molecular features in genes related to neurodegeneration. This analysis will aid our understanding of and in potentially modulating gene expression in cases of defective gene functioning in clinical settings.

Journal or Conference Name
Frontiers in Neuroscience
Publication Year