Emodin is an anthraquinone derivative found in the roots and bark of a variety of plants, molds, and lichens. Emodin has been used as a traditional medication for more than 2000 years and is still common in numerous herbal drugs. Emodin is plentiful in the three plant families, including Polygonaceae (Rheum, Rumex, and Polygonum spp.), Fabaceae (Cassia spp.), and Rhamnaceae (Rhamnus, Frangula, and Ventilago spp.). Emerging experimental evidences indicate that emodin confers a wide range of pharmacological activities; special focus was implemented toward neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson’s disease, cerebral ischemia, anxiety and depression, schizophrenia, chronic hyperglycemic peripheral neuropathy, etc. Numerous preclinical evidences were established in support of the neuroprotection of emodin. However, this review highlighted the role of emodin as a potent neurotherapeutic agent; therefore, its evidence-based functionality on neurological disorders (NDs).