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Chemical profiles and pharmacological insights of Anisomeles indica Kuntze: An experimental chemico-biological interaction
, Talha Bin Emran,

Anisomeles indica (L.) Kuntze is an ethnomedicinally important plant that has long been used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of ailments, including dyspepsia, abdominal pain, colic, allergies, inflammation, and rheumatic arthritis. However, the scientific framework underlying these medicinal properties is not well known. This study aimed to investigate the antidepressive, antidiarrheal, thrombolytic, and anti-inflammatory potential of a methanol extract of A. indica (MeOH-AI). The potential bioactive compounds in the MeOH-AI were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and antidepressant activities were evaluated using the tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST). Antidiarrheal effects were also assayed in castor oil-induced diarrhea and gastrointestinal motility studies. The anti-inflammatory activities were explored by examining the effects on protein inhibition and denaturation in heat- and hypotonic solution-induced hemolysis assays. The thrombolytic activity was evaluated using the clot lysis test in human blood. BIOVIA and Schrödinger Maestro (v11.1) were applied for docking analysis to determine binding interactions, and the absorption, distribution, metabolisms, excretion/toxicity (ADME/T) properties of bioactive compounds were explored using a web-based method. The GC-MS analysis of MeOH-AI revealed the presence of several bioactive compounds. MeOH-AI administration resulted in significant (p < 0.01) reductions in the immobility times for both the FST and TST compared with those in the control group. MeOH-AI also induced significant (p < 0.01) reductions in castor oil-induced diarrhea severity and gastrointestinal motility in a mouse model. In addition, the in vitro anti-inflammatory and thrombolytic activity studies produced remarkable responses. The binding assay showed that 4-dehydroxy-N-(4,5-methylenedioxy-2-nitrobenzylidene) tyramine interacts favorably with monoamine oxidase and serotonin and M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, displaying good pharmacokinetic properties, which may mediate the effects of MeOH-AI on depression and diarrhea. Overall, the research findings indicated that MeOH-AI has significant antidepressant, antidiarrheal, and anti-inflammatory effects and may represent an alternative source of novel therapeutic factors.

Journal or Conference Name
Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy
Publication Year