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Anticancer Activity of Cordia dichotoma against a Panel of Human Cancer Cell Lines and Their Phytochemical Profiling via HPLC and GCMS
, Khalid Rehman Hakeem,

The current study was conducted to examine the in vitro anticancer potential of Cordia dichotoma (bark, leaves, pulp and seed). The plant material was collected from UT of J&K and methodical bioassays were carried out on ten human cancer cell lines (Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7), M.D. Anderson-Metastatic Breast (MDA-MB-231), Neuroblastoma-2a (N2A), SH-SY5Y, U-251, HCT-116, SW-620, A-549, MIA PaCa-2, Panc-1) from five different origins (breast, CNS, colon, lung, pancreas) respectively. Methanolic extracts were produced and fractions were then obtained from the extracts and evaluated for cytotoxicity. Mechanistic assays, HPLC, and GCMS profiling were performed on the highest active fraction. The Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay determined the in vitro cytotoxicity. The findings revealed that the bark portion had in vitro cytotoxicity against the A-549 human lung cancer cell line. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that the plant's bark has anticancer properties and induced chromatin condensation, confirmed cell death via ROS generation, and significantly decreased colony formation in A-549 cell line from lung origin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, HPLC and GCMS investigations indicated the presence of a number of bioactive molecules such as gallic acid (144,969.86) uV*sec, caffeic acid (104.26) uV*sec, ferulic acid (472.87) uV*sec, vanillic acid (13,775.39) uV*sec, palmitic acid (18.34%), cis vaccenic acid (28.81%), etc. and one of the compounds was reported for the first time from the bark. As a result of its promising efficacy, it may become an essential cancer chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic medication for patients with lung carcinoma.

C. dichotoma; GCMS; HPLC; ROS; anticancer; apoptosis.
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