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Exploring the Journey of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) toward Biomedical Applications
Fahadul Islam, Aklima Akter, Md. Rezaul Islam, Talha Bin Emran,

The field of nanotechnology is concerned with the creation and application of materials having a nanoscale spatial dimensioning. Having a considerable surface area to volume ratio, nanoparticles have particularly unique properties. Several chemical and physical strategies have been used to prepare zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs). Still, biological methods using green or natural routes in various underlying substances (e.g., plant extracts, enzymes, and microorganisms) can be more environmentally friendly and cost-effective than chemical and/or physical methods in the long run. ZnO-NPs are now being studied as antibacterial agents in nanoscale and microscale formulations. The purpose of this study is to analyze the prevalent traditional method of generating ZnO-NPs, as well as its harmful side effects, and how it might be addressed utilizing an eco-friendly green approach. The study's primary focus is on the potential biomedical applications of green synthesized ZnO-NPs. Biocompatibility and biomedical qualities have been improved in green-synthesized ZnO-NPs over their traditionally produced counterparts, making them excellent antibacterial and cancer-fighting drugs. Additionally, these ZnO-NPs are beneficial when combined with the healing processes of wounds and biosensing components to trace small portions of biomarkers linked with various disorders. It has also been discovered that ZnO-NPs can distribute and sense drugs. Green-synthesized ZnO-NPs are compared to traditionally synthesized ones in this review, which shows that they have outstanding potential as a potent biological agent, as well as related hazardous properties.

ZnO-NPs; biomedical applications; green synthesis; toxicity; traditional synthesis
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