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Determination of synthetic opioids in oral fluid samples using fabric phase sorptive extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
, Abuzar Kabir,

    New psychoactive substances (NPS) continue to emerge in the drug market every year, becoming a global threat to public health and safety. These compounds are mostly synthetic cannabinoids and designer cathinones. However, synthetic opioids have appeared on the recreational drug markets in recent years, particularly fentanyl and its derivatives (“fentanyls”). Fentanyl and its analogs are related to harmful intoxications and an increase in opioid-related mortality in many countries, such as in the United States and Europe in the last years. Taking the drug related global crisis into consideration, this work developed and validated an effective and sensitive method based on fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the simultaneous determination of 11 fentanyl analogs in oral fluid samples. The extraction was carried out using a sol-gel Carbowax 20 M sorbent immobilized on 100% cellulose fabric substrate and using ethyl acetate as the desorption solvent. The limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) ranged from 1 to 15 ng mL−1 and 5 to 50 ng mL−1, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day precision were found within 8.2% and 8.6%, respectively, while accuracy ranged from -5.5 to 9.1%, in accordance with the established criteria. The absolute recovery values were in the range of 94.5%–109.1%. The validated method demonstrated its great potential to detect and quantify fentanyl analogs in possible forensic work and off-site analysis in road traffic cases.

    FentanylFabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE)Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)Oral fluidSynthetic opioids
    Journal or Conference Name
    Journal of Chromatography A
    Publication Year