Citrus limon L. is an ingenious alternative medication and has a broad scope in managing several health conditions as part of natural remedies. Recently, medicinal plants have witnessed incredible consideration worldwide in the field of neuroscience for remedial intervention. The present work has investigated the phytochemical compounds and neuropharmacological potential of the seed extract of Citrus limon as a step to partially validate its formulations as nutraceuticals using an in vivo model. Diverse phytochemical groups such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, gums, saponins, steroids were qualitatively identified through colorimetric methods utilizing standard compounds. The neuropharmacological properties were studied in Swiss albino mice with the sleep time induced by thiopental sodium taken as an end-point, in standard hole cross, hole board, and open-field experiments at varying doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight. Phytochemical screening showed that alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids, and glycosides are present in the aqueous extract of the seed. The extracts demonstrated a significant reduction in sleep onset and enhanced the sleep duration in a dose-dependent manner in thiopental sodium-induced sleeping time, along with a marked decrease in unconstrained locomotors and explorative properties in both hole cross and open field tests. Moreover, in the hole board study, the extracts minimized the count of head dips observed in the treated mice. The results shown in this study demonstrate that Citrus limon extracts have neuropharmacological properties that can be further examined for their potential role as an adjuvant with conventional medications or nutraceuticals.