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Coding Metamaterial Analysis Based on 1-Bit Conventional and Cuboid Design Structures for Microwave Applications
, Mayeen Uddin Khandaker,

This study aimed to investigate the compact 1-bit coding metamaterial design with various conventional and cuboid shapes by analysing the bistatic scattering patterns as well as the monostatic radar cross-section for microwave applications. The construction of this metamaterial design depends on binary elements. For example, 1-bit coding metamaterial comprises two kinds of unit cell to mimic both coding particles such as '0' and '1' with 0° and 180° phase responses. This study adopted a 1 mm × 1 mm of epoxy resin fibre (FR-4) substrate material, which possesses a dielectric constant of 4.3 and tangent loss of 0.025, to construct both elements for the 1-bit coding metamaterial. All simulations were performed using the well-known Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software. The elements were selected via a trial-and-error method based on the phase response properties of the designs. On the other hand, the phase response properties from CST software were validated through the comparison of the phase response properties of both elements with the analytical data from HFSS software. Clear closure was obtained from these findings, and it was concluded that the proposed conventional coding metamaterial manifested the lowest RCS values with an increasing number of lattices. However, the cuboid-shaped design with 20 lattices demonstrated an optimised bistatic scattering pattern of -8.49 dBm2. Additionally, the monostatic RCS values were successfully reduced within the 12 to 18 GHz frequency range with -30 to -10 dBm2 values. In short, the introduced designs were suitable for the proposed application field, and this unique phenomenon is described as the novelty of this study.

-bit coding metamaterial; FR-4; RCS reduction; cuboid coding metamaterial; phase response.
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