Based on the diverse physiological influence, the impact of glial cells has become much more evident on neurological illnesses, resulting in the origins of many diseases appearing to be more convoluted than previously happened. Since neurological disorders are often random and unknown, hence the construction of animal models is difficult to build, representing a small fraction of people with a gene mutation. As a result, an immediate necessity is grown to work within in vitro techniques for examining these illnesses. As the scientific community recognizes cell-autonomous contributions to a variety of central nervous system illnesses, therapeutic techniques involving stem cells for treating neurological diseases are gaining traction. The use of stem cells derived from a variety of sources is increasingly being used to replace both neuronal and glial tissue. The brain's energy demands necessitate the reliance of neurons on glial cells in order for it to function properly. Furthermore, glial cells have diverse functions in terms of regulating their own metabolic activities, as well as collaborating with neurons via secreted signaling or guidance molecules, forming a complex network of neuron-glial connections in health and sickness. Emerging data reveals that metabolic changes in glial cells can cause morphological and functional changes in conjunction with neuronal dysfunction under disease situations, highlighting the importance of neuron-glia interactions in the pathophysiology of neurological illnesses. In this context, it is required to improve our understanding of disease mechanisms and create potential novel therapeutics. According to research, synaptic malfunction is one of the features of various mental diseases, and glial cells are acting as key ingredients not only in synapse formation, growth, and plasticity but also in neuroinflammation and synaptic homeostasis which creates critical physiological capacity in the focused sensory system. The goal of this review article is to elaborate state-of-the-art information on a few glial cell types situated in the central nervous system (CNS) and highlight their role in the onset and progression of neurological disorders.