Abnormalities in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway are a key contributor to the carcinogenesis process and have therefore been implicated in several aspects of tumorigenesis, including cell differentiation, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, apoptosis, and metastasis. This pathway offers multiple molecular targets that may be modulated for anticancer activity and is of great interest for several malignancies. Polyphenols from various dietary sources have been observed to interfere with certain aspects of this pathway and consequently play a substantial role in the development and progression of cancer by suppressing cell growth, inactivating carcinogens, blocking angiogenesis, causing cell death, and changing immunity. A good number of polyphenolic compounds have shown promising outcomes in numerous pieces of research and are currently being investigated clinically to treat cancer patients. The current study concentrates on the role of the MAPK pathway in the development and metastasis of cancer, with particular emphasis on dietary polyphenolic compounds that influence the different MAPK sub-pathways to obtain an anticancer effect. This study aims to convey an overview of the various aspects of the MAPK pathway in cancer development and invasion, as well as a review of the advances achieved in the development of polyphenols to modulate the MAPK signaling pathway for better treatment of cancer.