Integrated aquaculture is an efficient method to address food scarcity and land resources. This study analysed the impacts of integrated rice–prawn–vegetable farms (RPVF) compared with conventional rice farms (CRF) on farming households in southwest Bangladesh, in terms of cropping pattern, financial profitability and viability, and cash-flow. Data were collected through face-to-face recall interviews from farmers of CRF and RPVF. For RPVF, farmers cultivated diverse produce in the wet season, such as prawn/shrimp, carps in reservoirs and vegetables on dikes, and boro rice with vegetables in the dry season, whereas only rice was cultivated in both seasons for CRF. The annual hectare−1 net revenue from integrated RPVF was USD 2742.7, 3.6 times higher than for CRF (USD 756.6). RPVF had a higher undiscounted benefit–cost ratio (BCR) of 1.58 as compared with 1.34 for CRF. Net Present Value (NPV) and discounted BCR show that the integrated RPVF has higher potential and profitability than CRF. Year-round vegetable production and selling have resulted in a smooth cash-flow in integrated RPVF. Authorised extension agencies, such as the Department of Fisheries and Department of Agricultural Extension collaboratively can promote RPVF in other potential parts of Bangladesh, through which farmers can benefit year after year by investing farm income for the same farm and envisage food security.