Scopus Indexed Publications

Paper Details

Development, Application, and Performance of Artificial Intelligence in Cephalometric Landmark Identification and Diagnosis: A Systematic Review
, Mohammad Khursheed Alam,

This study aimed to analyze the existing literature on how artificial intelligence is being used to support the identification of cephalometric landmarks. The systematic analysis of literature was carried out by performing an extensive search in PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane, Scopus, and Science Direct databases. Articles published in the last ten years were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 17 full-text articles were systematically appraised. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions (CHSRI) and Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale (NOS) were adopted for quality analysis of the included studies. The artificial intelligence systems were mainly based on deep learning-based convolutional neural networks (CNNs) in the included studies. The majority of the studies proposed that AI-based automatic cephalometric analyses provide clinically acceptable diagnostic performance. They have worked remarkably well, with accuracy and precision similar to the trained orthodontist. Moreover, they can simplify cephalometric analysis and provide a quick outcome in practice. Therefore, they are of great benefit to orthodontists, as with these systems they can perform tasks more efficiently.

artificial intelligence; automated orthodontic diagnosis; deep learning; cephalometry; convolutional neural networks; head and neck imaging
Journal or Conference Name
Healthcare (Switzerland)
Publication Year