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Fuzzy logic, geostatistics, and multiple linear models to evaluate irrigation metrics and their influencing factors in a drought-prone agricultural region
, Abu Reza Md Towfiqul Islam,

The quality of water used for irrigation is one of the major threats to maintaining the long-term sustainability of agricultural practices. Although some studies have addressed the suitability of irrigation water in different parts of Bangladesh, the irrigation water quality in the drought-prone region has yet to be thoroughly studied using integrated novel approaches. This study aims to assess the suitability of irrigation water in the drought-prone agricultural region of Bangladesh using traditional irrigation metrics such as sodium percentage (NA%), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), Kelley's ratio (KR), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), total hardness (TH), permeability index (PI), and soluble sodium percentage (SSP), along with novel irrigation indices such as irrigation water quality index (IWQI) and fuzzy irrigation water quality index (FIWQI). Thirty-eight water samples were taken from tube wells, river systems, streamlets, and canals in agricultural areas, then analyzed for cations and anions. The multiple linear regression model predicted that SAR (0.66), KR (0.74), and PI (0.84) were the primary important elements influencing electrical conductivity (EC). Based on the IWQI, all water samples fall into the “suitable” category for irrigation. The FIWQI suggests that 75% of the groundwater and 100% of the surface water samples are excellent for irrigation. The semivariogram model indicates that most irrigation metrics have moderate to low spatial dependence, suggesting strong agricultural and rural influence. Redundancy analysis shows that Na+, Ca2+, Cl, K+, and HCO3 in water increase with decreasing temperature. Surface water and some groundwater in the southwestern and southeastern parts are suitable for irrigation. The northern and central parts are less suitable for agriculture because of elevated K+ and Mg2+ levels. This study determines irrigation metrics for regional water management and pinpoints suitable areas in the drought-prone region, which provides a comprehensive understanding of sustainable water management and actionable steps for stakeholders and decision-makers.

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Environmental Research
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