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Coumarin-Based Sulfonamide Derivatives as Potential DPP-IV Inhibitors: Pre-ADME Analysis, Toxicity Profile, Computational Analysis, and In Vitro Enzyme Assay
, Md. Fahadul Islam,
Recent research on dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors has made it feasible to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with minimal side effects. Therefore, in the present investigation, we aimed to discover and develop some coumarin-based sulphonamides as potential DPP-IV inhibitors in light of the fact that molecular hybridization of many bioactive pharmacophores frequently results in synergistic activity. Each of the proposed derivatives was subjected to an in silico virtual screening, and those that met all of the criteria and had a higher binding affinity with the DPP-IV enzyme were then subjected to wet lab synthesis, followed by an in vitro biological evaluation. The results of the pre-ADME and pre-tox predictions indicated that compounds 6e, 6f, 6h, and 6m to 6q were inferior and violated the most drug-like criteria. It was observed that 6a, 6b, 6c, 6d, 6i, 6j, 6r, 6s, and 6t displayed less binding free energy (PDB ID: 5Y7H) than the reference inhibitor and demonstrated drug-likeness properties, hence being selected for wet lab synthesis and the structures being confirmed by spectral analysis. In the in vitro enzyme assay, the standard drug Sitagliptin had an IC50 of 0.018 µM in the experiment which is the most potent. All the tested compounds also displayed significant inhibition of the DPP-IV enzyme, but 6i and 6j demonstrated 10.98 and 10.14 µM IC50 values, respectively, i.e., the most potent among the synthesized compounds. Based on our findings, we concluded that coumarin-based sulphonamide derivatives have significant DPP-IV binding ability and exhibit optimal enzyme inhibition in an in vitro enzyme assay.
ADMET; molecular docking; sitagliptin; hypoglycemia; SAR; DPP-IV; coumarin-based sulfonamide; computation analysis; docking; in vitro; toxicity
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