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Nano-Conversion of Ineffective Cephalosporins into Potent One against Resistant Clinical Uro-Pathogens via Gold Nanoparticles
, Mohammad Amjad Kamal,

Infections caused by resistant bacterial pathogens have increased the complications of clinicians worldwide. The quest for effective antibacterial agents against resistant pathogens has prompted researchers to develop new classes of antibiotics. Unfortunately, pathogens have acted more smartly by developing resistance to even the newest class of antibiotics with time. The culture sensitivity analysis of the clinical samples revealed that pathogens are gaining resistance toward the new generations of cephalosporins at a very fast rate globally. The current study developed gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) that could efficiently deliver the 2nd (cefotetan-CT) and 3rd (cefixime-CX) generation cephalosporins to resistant clinical pathogens. In fact, both CT and CX were used to reduce and stabilize AuNPs by applying a one-pot synthesis approach, and their characterization was performed via spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy. Moreover, the synthesized AuNPs were tested against uro-pathogenic resistant clinical strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. CT-AuNPs characteristic SPR peak was observed at 542 nm, and CX-AuNPs showed the same at 522 nm. The stability measurement showed ζ potential as −24.9 mV and −25.2 mV for CT-AuNPs and CX-AuNPs, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the spherical shape of both the AuNPs, whereas, the size by transmission electron microscopy for CT-AuNPs and CX-AuNPs were estimated to be 45 ± 19 nm and 35 ± 17 nm, respectively. Importantly, once loaded onto AuNPs, both the cephalosporin antibiotics become extremely potent against the resistant strains of E. coli and K. pneumoniae with MIC50 in the range of 0.5 to 0.8 μg/mL. The findings propose that old-generation unresponsive antibiotics could be revived into potent nano-antibiotics via AuNPs. Thus, investing efforts, intellect, time and funds for a nano-antibiotic strategy might be a better approach to overcome resistance than investing the same in the development of newer antibiotic molecule(s).

antibiotic resistance; cefotetan; cefixime; clinical pathogens; gold nanoparticles
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