"Background: The alarming increase in tick-borne pathogens such as human Babesia microti is an existential threat to global public health. It is a protozoan parasitic infection transmitted by numerous species of the genus Babesia. Second, monkeypox has recently emerged as a public health crisis, and the virus has spread around the world in the post-COVID-19 period with a very rapid transmission rate. These two novel pathogens are a new concern for human health globally and have become a significant obstacle to the development of modern medicine and the economy of the whole world. Currently, there are no approved drugs for the treatment of this disease. So, this research gap encourages us to find a potential inhibitor from a natural source.
Methods and materials: In this study, a series of natural plant-based biomolecules were subjected to in-depth computational investigation to find the most potent inhibitors targeting major pathogenic proteins responsible for the diseases caused by these two pathogens.
Results: Among them, most of the selected natural compounds are predicted to bind tightly to the targeted proteins that are crucial for the replication of these novel pathogens. Moreover, all the molecules have outstanding ADMET properties such as high aqueous solubility, a higher human gastrointestinal absorption rate, and a lack of any carcinogenic or hepatotoxic effects; most of them followed Lipinski’s rule. Finally, the stability of the compounds was determined by molecular dynamics simulations (MDs) for 100 ns. During MDs, we observed that the mentioned compounds have exceptional stability against selected pathogens.
Conclusion: These advanced computational strategies reported that 11 lead compounds, including dieckol and amentoflavone, exhibited high potency, excellent drug-like properties, and no toxicity. These compounds demonstrated strong binding affinities to the target enzymes, especially dieckol, which displayed superior stability during molecular dynamics simulations. The MM/PBSA method confirmed the favorable binding energies of amentoflavone and dieckol. However, further in vitro and in vivo studies are necessary to validate their efficacy. Our research highlights the role of Dieckol and Amentoflavone as promising candidates for inhibiting both monkeypox and Babesia microti, demonstrating their multifaceted roles in the control of these pathogens."