Cytokines are a protein family comprising interleukins, lymphokines, chemokines, monokines and interferons. They are significant constituents of the immune system, and they act in accordance with specific cytokine inhibiting compounds and receptors for the regulation of immune responses. Cytokine studies have resulted in the establishment of newer therapies which are being utilized for the treatment of several malignant diseases. The advancement of these therapies has occurred from two distinct strategies. The first strategy involves administrating the recombinant and purified cytokines, and the second strategy involves administrating the therapeutics which inhibits harmful effects of endogenous and overexpressed cytokines. Colony stimulating factors and interferons are two exemplary therapeutics of cytokines. An important effect of cytokine receptor antagonist is that they can serve as anti-inflammatory agents by altering the treatments of inflammation disorder, therefore inhibiting the effects of tumour necrosis factor. In this article, we have highlighted the research behind the establishment of cytokines as therapeutics and vaccine adjuvants, their role of immunotolerance, and their limitations.