The demand for energy has increased tremendously around the whole world due to rapid urbanization and booming industrialization. Energy is the major key to achieving an improved social life, but energy production and utilization processes are the main contributors to environmental pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Mitigation of the energy crisis and reduction in pollution (water and air) difficulties are the leading research topics nowadays. Carbonaceous materials offer some of the best solutions to minimize these problems in an easy and effective way. It is also advantageous that the sources of carbon-based materials are economical, the synthesis processes are comfortable, and the applications are environmentally friendly. Among carbonaceous materials, activated carbons, graphene, and carbon nanotubes have shown outstanding performance in mitigating the energy crisis and environmental pollution. These three carbonaceous materials exhibit unique adsorption properties for energy storage, water purification, and gas cleansing due to their outstanding electrical conductivity, large specific surface areas, and strong mechanical strength. This paper reviews the synthesis methods for activated carbons, carbon nanotubes, and graphene and their significant applications in energy storage, water treatment, and carbon dioxide gas capture to improve environmental sustainability.