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A Novel Hybrid Approach for Classifying Osteosarcoma Using Deep Feature Extraction and Multilayer Perceptron
, Md. Fazla Elahe,

Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer that tends to occur in teenagers and young adults. Due to crowded context, inter-class similarity, inter-class variation, and noise in H&E-stained (hematoxylin and eosin stain) histology tissue, pathologists frequently face difficulty in osteosarcoma tumor classification. In this paper, we introduced a hybrid framework for improving the efficiency of three types of osteosarcoma tumor (nontumor, necrosis, and viable tumor) classification by merging different types of CNN-based architectures with a multilayer perceptron (MLP) algorithm on the WSI (whole slide images) dataset. We performed various kinds of preprocessing on the WSI images. Then, five pre-trained CNN models were trained with multiple parameter settings to extract insightful features via transfer learning, where convolution combined with pooling was utilized as a feature extractor. For feature selection, a decision tree-based RFE was designed to recursively eliminate less significant features to improve the model generalization performance for accurate prediction. Here, a decision tree was used as an estimator to select the different features. Finally, a modified MLP classifier was employed to classify binary and multiclass types of osteosarcoma under the five-fold CV to assess the robustness of our proposed hybrid model. Moreover, the feature selection criteria were analyzed to select the optimal one based on their execution time and accuracy. The proposed model achieved an accuracy of 95.2% for multiclass classification and 99.4% for binary classification. Experimental findings indicate that our proposed model significantly outperforms existing methods; therefore, this model could be applicable to support doctors in osteosarcoma diagnosis in clinics. In addition, our proposed model is integrated into a web application using the FastAPI web framework to provide a real-time prediction.

osteosarcoma; convolutional neural networks; transfer learning; feature extraction; feature selection; machine learning; MLP
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