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Pollution trends and ecological risks of heavy metal(loid)s in coastal zones of Bangladesh: A chemometric review
, Abu Reza Md Towfiqul Islam,

Heavy metal(loid)s inputs contribute to human and environmental stresses in the coastal zones of Bangladesh. Several studies have been conducted on metal(loid)s pollution in sediment, soil, and water in the coastal zones. However, they are sporadic, and no attempt has been made in coastal zones from the standpoint of chemometric review. The current work aims to provide a chemometric assessment of the pollution trend of metal(loid)s, namely arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni) in sediments, soils, and water across the coastal zones from 2015 to 2022. The findings showed that 45.7, 15.2, and 39.1 % of studies on heavy metal(loid)s were concentrated in the eastern, central, and western zones of coastal Bangladesh. The obtained data were further modeled using chemometric approaches, such as the contamination factor, pollution load index, geoaccumulation index, degree of contamination, Nemerow's pollution index, and ecological risk index. The results revealed that metal(loid)s, primarily Cd, have severely polluted the sediments (contamination factor, CF = 5.20) and soils (CF = 9.35) of coastal regions. Water was moderately polluted (Nemerow's pollution index, ��=5.22 ± 6.26) in the coastal area. The eastern zone was the most polluted compared to other zones, except for a few observations in the central zone. The overall ecological risks posed by metal(loid)s highlighted the significant ecological risk in sediments (ecological risk index, RI = 123.50) and soils (RI = 238.93) along the eastern coast. The coastal zone may have higher pollution levels due to the proximity of industrial effluent, residential sewage discharge, agricultural activities, sea transport, metallurgical industries, shipbreaking and recycling operations, and seaport activities, which are the major sources of metal(loid)s. This study will provide useful information to the relevant authorities and serve as the foundation for future management and policy decisions to reduce metal(loid) pollution in the coastal zones of southern Bangladesh.

Journal or Conference Name
Marine Pollution Bulletin
Publication Year