Radon (222Rn), an inert gas, is considered a silent killer due to its carcinogenic characteristics. Dhaka city is situated on the banks of the Buriganga River, which is regarded as the lifeline of Dhaka city because it serves as a significant source of the city’s water supply for domestic and industrial purposes. Thirty water samples (10 tap water from Dhaka city and 20 surface samples from the Buriganga River) were collected and analyzed using a RAD H2O accessory for 222Rn concentration. The average 222Rn concentration in tap and river water was 1.54 ± 0.38 Bq/L and 0.68 ± 0.29 Bq/L, respectively. All the values were found below the maximum contamination limit (MCL) of 11.1 Bq/L set by the USEPA, the WHO-recommended safe limit of 100 Bq/L, and the UNSCEAR suggested range of 4–40 Bq/L. The mean values of the total annual effective doses due to inhalation and ingestion were calculated to be 9.77 μSv/y and 4.29 μSv/y for tap water and river water, respectively. Although all these values were well below the permissible limit of 100 μSv/y proposed by WHO, they cannot be neglected because of the hazardous nature of 222Rn, especially considering their entry to the human body via inhalation and ingestion pathways. The obtained data may serve as a reference for future 222Rn-related works.