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Can enhancing financial inclusivity lower climate risks by inhibiting carbon emissions? Contextual evidence from emerging economies
Muntasir Murshed,

Climate change is regarded as a global concern whereby lowering climate risks, especially by curbing greenhouse gas emissions, has become a critically important policy agenda worldwide. Hence, this study assesses whether financial inclusion, alongside energy efficiency improvement, renewable energy use, economic growth, international trade, and urbanization, can mitigate carbon dioxide emissions in 22 emerging economies. Considering the period of analysis from 2008 to 2018 and utilizing econometric methods robust to handling cross-sectionally-dependent, heterogeneous, and endogenous panel data, the findings reveal that financial inclusion is directly associated with higher discharges of carbon dioxide. Contrarily, energy efficiency improvement and higher share of renewable energy in the aggregate energy consumption level inhibit carbon dioxide emissions. Moreover, energy efficiency gains moderate the financial inclusion-emissions nexus by jointly reducing carbon emissions with greater financial inclusivity. Finally, the results indicate that economic growth, international trade, and urbanization trigger climate risks by boosting the emission figures. In light of these findings, several carbon dioxide-mitigating policies are recommended for neutralizing climate risks in emerging countries of concern.

Journal or Conference Name
Research in International Business and Finance
Publication Year