Water pollution is one of the current global problems. So many countries are suffering from this problem specifically most South Asian and Southeast Asian countries, and Bangladesh is one of those countries that are suffering from water pollution. Furthermore, the city of Bangladesh, Dhaka is one of the most densely populated cities in the world and overpopulation is showing a negative impact on the water quality now. Most of the rivers are very polluted around Dhaka city because of anthropogenic causes. This study focused on Buriganga river pollution and its impact on public health. This study intended to find out the major cause of Buriganga river pollution and the health status of the community living beside the Buriganga river. Also the study identified all the common diseases which people are suffering from around the Buriganga river area. Then the study compared the results with other southeast Asian countries so that it can make the relationship and can make it easier to understand the current situation of water pollution on public health in East Asia and Southeast Asia regions. During the research work, it was noticed that the Buriganga river is very polluted due to human activities. The transportation system, fishing, and waste canals from industries become the primary reasons behind Buriganga’s current condition. Also irresponsibility of both the environmental department and civil society is the major factor in Buriganga river pollution. The hygienic level was also not in a good condition because so many wastes like plastic materials and other daily use materials were thrown out into the river. That’s why public health conditions around the Buriganga river become vulnerable nowadays. So policies have to be implemented from the right perspective and the institutions have to be strong enough to handle all the issues regarding the Buriganga River.