The glycosides of two flavonoids, naringin and naringenin, are found in various citrus fruits, bergamots, tomatoes, and other fruits. These phytochemicals are associated with multiple biological functions, including neuroprotective, antioxidant, anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiadipogenic, and cardioprotective effects. The higher glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio in 3-NP-induced rats is attributed to the ability of naringin to reduce hydroxyl radical, hydroperoxide, and nitrite. However, although progress has been made in treating these diseases, there are still global concerns about how to obtain a solution. Thus, natural compounds can provide a promising strategy for treating many neurological conditions. Possible therapeutics for neurodegenerative disorders include naringin and naringenin polyphenols. New experimental evidence shows that these polyphenols exert a wide range of pharmacological activity; particular attention was paid to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, as well as other neurological conditions such as anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and chronic hyperglycemic peripheral neuropathy. Several preliminary investigations have shown promising evidence of neuroprotection. The main objective of this review was to reflect on developments in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of naringin and naringenin as potential neuroprotective medications. Furthermore, the configuration relationships between naringin and naringenin are discussed, as well as their plant sources and extraction methods.