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Mitochondrial defects in pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction and neurodegenerative diseases: Pathogenesis and therapeutic applications
, Talha Bin Emran,

Mitochondria malfunction is linked to the development of β-cell failure and a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. Pancreatic β-cells are normally configured to detect glucose and other food secretagogues in order to adjust insulin exocytosis and maintain glucose homeostasis. As a result of the increased glucose level, mitochondria metabolites and nucleotides are produced, which operate in concert with cytosolic Ca2+ to stimulate insulin secretion. Furthermore, mitochondria are the primary generators of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis regulation. Mitochondria are concentrated in synapses, and any substantial changes in synaptic mitochondria location, shape, quantity, or function might cause oxidative stress, resulting in faulty synaptic transmission, a symptom of various degenerative disorders at an early stage. However, a greater understanding of the role of mitochondria in the etiology of β-cell dysfunction and neurodegenerative disorder should pave the way for a more effective approach to addressing these health issues. This review looks at the widespread occurrence of mitochondria depletion in humans, and its significance to mitochondria biogenesis in signaling and mitophagy. Proper understanding of the processes might be extremely beneficial in ameliorating the rising worries about mitochondria biogenesis and triggering mitophagy to remove depleted mitochondria, therefore reducing disease pathogenesis.

Mitochondria dysfunction; Mitophagy; Neurodegenerative diseases; Pancreatic β-cells; Reactive oxygen species.
Journal or Conference Name
Life Sciences
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