Due to rising environmental and global public health concerns associated with environmental contamination, human populations are continually being exposed to environmental toxicants, including physical chemical mutagens widespread in our environment causing adverse consequences and inducing a variety of neurological disorders in humans. Physical mutagens comprise ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, such as UV rays, IR rays, X-rays, which produces a broad spectrum of neuronal destruction, including neuroinflammation, genetic instability, enhanced oxidative stress driving mitochondrial damage in the human neuronal antecedent cells, cognitive impairment due to alterations in neuronal function, especially in synaptic plasticity, neurogenesis repression, modifications in mature neuronal networks drives to enhanced neurodegenerative risk. Chemical Mutagens including alkylating agents (EMS, NM, MMS, and NTG), Hydroxylamine, nitrous acid, sodium azide, halouracils are the major toxic mutagen in our environment and have been associated with neurological disorders. These chemical mutagens create dimers of pyrimidine that cause DNA damage that leads to ROS generation producing mutations, chromosomal abnormalities, genotoxicity which leads to increased neurodegenerative risk. The toxicity of four heavy metal including Cd, As, Pb, Hg is mostly responsible for complicated neurological disorders in humans. Cadmium exposure can enhance the permeability of the BBB and penetrate the brain, driving brain intracellular accumulation, cellular dysfunction, and cerebral edema. Arsenic exerts its toxic effect by induction of ROS production in neuronal cells. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanism and mechanistic effects of mutagens in the environment and their role in multiple neurological disorders.